Optometry investigates vision function and eye health. As the word itself etymologically suggests, optometry is mainly concerned with the measurement of vision and is an independent and autonomous profession in the field of health. Studies in optometry are university-level and include extensive training, both theoretical and practical, in the fields of optics, physiology, neurology and vision-related pathology .The main purpose of optometrists is to diagnose, correct and treat vision impairments at every level with the help of glasses, contact lenses, filters, low vision aids and personalized rehabilitation programs . An optometrist is able to identify many pathological conditions but they should be treated exclusively or in collaboration with the field of ophthalmology.
According to the definition of the European Council of Optometry and Optics (ECOO): “Optometry is an autonomous profession in the field of health, which requires education and is governed by certain rules, ie it is practiced exclusively by graduates of recognized schools who have obtained a license to practice the profession. Optometrists provide primary eye and vision health care, which includes refraction (and prescription), selection and treatment of appropriate “refractive aids”, diagnosis and management of eye diseases and restoration of vision to normal levels.
Optician or Optometrist?
Optics is a related specialty to optometry. Optics deals with the execution of prescriptions, whether they concern glasses and optical media or contact lenses, but also the marketing of all kinds of optical items.
In Greece, optometrists do not use eye drops or other medications during the examination. The purpose is the functional evaluation of visual skills so that then to find the best possible way to deal with any visual impairment with the use of glasses, contact lenses, low vision aids.
Optometrists have a variety of diagnostic tests with which, as the case may be, they check all or part of the following:
In Greece optometrists do not use eye drops or other medications during the test. The purpose is the functional evaluation of visual skills so that then to find the best possible way to deal with any visual impairment with the use of glasses, contact lenses, low vision aids.
In the diagnosis of pathology that requires medical or surgical treatment, the optometrists refer or co-manage the case with an ophthalmologist or another doctor of appropriate specialty. Respectively, ophthalmologists can refer cases to optometrists that need special visual care (eg application of contact lenses, keratoconus contact lenses, application of low vision aids, binocular study, etc.).
Ophthalmology is a specialty of medicine and ophthalmologists are the most responsible for the management of any pathology that appears in the ocular system. Their therapeutic interventions, in addition to glasses, can additionally be pharmaceutical or surgical.
Myopia is a refractive error of the eye, in which light rays are not concentrated in the retina, as is normal, but somewhere in front of it. For this reason, myopia (arch. Myopia) is unable to see clearly objects that are far away.
Hyperopia is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, rather than above, the retina. This causes objects at all distances to appear blurry.
Astigmatism is an aspherical refractive error where the eye presents different refraction in two parts. It can be normal (more frequent) or irregular.
Normal astigmatism – looks more like a rugby ball (the curvature of the meridians gives it that shape). Irregular astigmatism – associated with trauma, illness or degeneration, strange shapes or scars (the curvature of any meridian is not uniform)
Strabismus is a condition in which the axes of the eyes are not parallel. If you have strabismus, your eyes are looking in different directions. And each eye focuses on a different object. The condition is more common in children, but can occur later in life. In older children and adults, strabismus can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, such as cerebral palsy or stroke. Strabismus can be corrected with corrective lenses, surgery, or a combination.
If you have strabismus, your eyes may point outward or inward or focus in different directions. You may also have:
Symptoms may be persistent or appear only when you are tired.
Strabismus can be due to either nerve damage or manifested when the muscles around the eye do not work together properly and some are weaker than others. When the brain receives a different visual message from each eye, it ignores signals from the weaker eye.
If the condition is not corrected, you may lose sight of the patient’s eye. Possible treatments include:
Keratoconus is a disorder of the eye, which results in progressive thinning and an increase in the curvature of the cornea.  This can lead to blurred vision, double vision, myopia, astigmatism and sensitivity to light. Both eyes are usually affected. In more severe cases, scarring of the cornea may occur. While the cause is unknown, it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental and hormonal factors. The basic mechanism involves changing the cone in the shape of a cone.
Signs and symptoms:
People with early keratoconus usually notice a slight blur in their vision and visit the ophthalmologist, looking for corrective lenses for reading or driving.
Prior to any physical examination, the diagnosis of keratoconus often begins with an ophthalmologist or optometrist assessing the individual’s medical history, determining the individual’s visual acuity, and detecting corneal curvature, with the detection of irregular astigmatism. keratoconus.
A more definitive diagnosis can be achieved with corneal topography, in which an automated instrument projects the illuminated pattern on the cornea and determines its topography from digital image analysis. The topographic map indicates any distortions or scars on the cornea, revealing the keratoconus. The technique can record a snapshot of the degree and extent of the deformity as a benchmark for estimating its rate of progression. It is of particular value in detecting the disorder in its early stages, when other symptoms have not yet occurred.
People with keratoconus in the early stages improve their vision with glasses or contact lenses.
However, people with advanced keratoconus need more specialized products. Such as:
Otherwise we resort to surgeries. The main ones are:
The contact lens (referred to simply as the lens) is a corrective, cosmetic or even therapeutic tool used by people with vision problems such as myopia, astigmatism, hyperopia and presbyopia.
Contact lenses are commonly used to avoid the use of glasses. People choose to wear contact lenses for many reasons, often because of their appearance and practicality. Compared to glasses, contact lenses provide a wider field of view. It is more suitable for sports activities. In addition, eye conditions such as keratoconus can not be accurately corrected with glasses.
There are two types of contact lenses:
In terms of duration, there are 4 types of contact lenses: